Sarah Clark

Sarah J. Clark, M.P.H.

Associate Research Scientist, Department of Pediatrics

300 North Ingalls, Rm 6E06
Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5456

Office: 734-615-8145; FAX: 734-764-2599

E-mail: saclark[at]umich[dot]edu

Curriculum Vitae

Biography, Education, Peer-Reviewed Publications


Sarah J. Clark, MPH, is Associate Research Scientist in the Department of Pediatrics. She also serves as Associate Director of the C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital National Poll on Children’s Health.

Ms. Clark joined the faculty at the University of Michigan in 1998. Her current work focuses on immunization policies at the state and federal level; physician knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to child health; parental perspectives on child health; and evaluation of Medicaid policy and programs.


M.P.H., Health Behavior and Health Education, University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill, 1994
A.B., Education, University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill, 1988

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Macy ML, Cohn LM, Clark SJ.  
Trends in observation-prone emergency department visits among Michigan children; 2007-2011.
Acad Emerg Med. In press.

Clark SJ, Reeves SL, Gebremariam A, Stokley SM, Dombkowski KJ.
Communication from primary care practices regarding adolescent immunization.
Clinical Pediatrics. In press.
Macy ML, Clark SJ, Singer DD, Butchart A, Gebremariam A, Davis MM.
Looking back on rear-facing car seats: Surveying US parents in 2011 and 2013. 
Academic Pediatrics. In press.
Yoon EY, McCool B, Filipp S, Rocchini A, Kershaw D, Clark SJ
Pediatric hypertension specialists’ perspectives about adolescent hypertension management: Implications for primary care providers.
Clinical Pediatrics. In press.
Heinze JE, Heinze KL, Davis MM, Butchart AT, Singer DC, Clark SJ. 
Gender role beliefs and parents’ support of athletic participation.
Youth & Society. In press. 



Clark SJ, Duong S, Fontana M.
Dental provider attitudes are a barrier to expanded oral health care for children ≤3 years of age.
Global Pediatr Health. In press.

Clark SJ, Shoulders EN, Davis MM. 
Infant pertussis prevention information on websites of Michigan birthing hospitals.
Am J Infect Control. In press.

Espinosa CM, Cowan AE, Clark SJ.
Ability to delivery services in Spanish: A survey of Michigan home health agencies.
J Health Care Poor Underserved. In Press.

Dombkowski KJ, Costello L, Harrington L, Dong S, Kolasa M, Clark SJ.
Age-specific strategies for immunization reminders and recalls: a registry-based randomized trial.
Am J Prev Med. 2014;47:1-8.

Yoon EY, Weber J, McCool B, Rocchini A, Kershaw D, Freed G, Ascione F, Clark SJ.
Underlying rationale and approach to treat hypertension in adolescents by physician of different specialty.
Ann Pediatr Child Health. 2013;1(1):1005.

Yoon EY, Cohn L, Rocchini A, Kershaw D, Freed G, Ascione F, Clark SJ.
Use of antihypertensive medications and diagnostic tests among privately-insured adolescents and young adults with essential vs. secondary hypertension.
J Adolesc Health. In press.

Dombkowski KJ, Cowan AE, Costello L, Kennedy-Fisher A, Clark SJ.
Feasibility of automated appointment reminders using email.
Clin Pediatrics. Published online before print March 20, 2014, doi: 10.1177/0009922814527505.

Dombkowski KJ, Cowan AE, Potter R, Dong S, Kolasa M, Clark SJ.
Statewide pandemic influenza vaccination reminders for children with chronic conditions.
Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 14, 2013: el-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301662

Zickafoose JS, Cohn LM, Clark SJ.
Outpatient utilization by infants auto-assigned to Medicaid managed care plans.
Matern Child Health J. Published online on June 20, 2013. doi 10.1007/s10995-013-1300-3.

Sekhar DL, Clark SJ, Davis MM, Singer DC, Paul IM.
Parental perspectives on adolescent hearing loss risk and prevention.
JAMA Otolarynol. 2013;():-. doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.5760.

Hastings EA, Lumeng JC, Clark SJ.
Primary care physicians’ knowledge of and confidence in their referrals for special education services in 3- to 5-year-old children.
Clin Pediatrics. 2014;53:166-72.

Dombkowski KJ, Costello L, Dong S, Clark SJ.
Using administrative claims to identify children with high risk conditions in a statewide immunization registry.
Am J Managed Care. In press.

Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Butchart A, Geiger JD, Davis MM, Fagerlin A.
To pay or not to pay: Public perception regarding insurance coverage of obesity treatment.
Obesity. 2013;21:E709-14.

Wolfgram PM, Sarrault J, Clark SJ, Lee JM.
State-to-state variability in Title V coverage for children with diabetes.
J Peds. 2013;162:873-5.

Zickafoose JS, Clark SJ, Sakshaug J, Chen, L, Hollingsworth J.
Readiness of primary care practices for medical home certification.
Pediatrics. 2013;131:473-82.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Wortley PM.
Obstetricians and the 2009-10 H1N1 vaccination effort: Implications for future pandemics.
Mat Child Health J. 2013;17:1185-90

Davis MM, Clark SJ, Butchart AT, Singer DC, Shanley TP, Gipson DS.
Public participation in, and awareness about, medical research opportunities in the era of clinical and translational research.
Clin Translational Sci 2013;6:88-93.

Macy ML, Clark SJ, Cunningham R, Freed GL.
Availability of child passenger safety resources to emergency physicians practicing in emergency departments within pediatric, adult, and non-trauma centers: A national survey.
Pediatr Emerg Care 2013;29:324-30.

Singer DC, Davis MM, Gebremariam A, Clark SJ.
Underinsurance for recently recommended vaccines in private health plans.
J Community Health. 2012;37:1164-7.

Yoon EY, Cohn L, Rocchini A, Kershaw D, Freed GL, Ascione F, Clark SJ.
Use of diagnostic tests in adolescents with essential hypertension.
Arch Ped Adol Med. Published online on July 23 2012. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.1173.

Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Sallinen BJ, Geiger JD, Freed GL.
Bariatric surgery decision making challenges: The stability of teens' decisions and the treatment failure paradox.
Pediatr Surg Intl. 2012;28;455-60.

Woolford SJ, Khan S, Barr K, Clark SJ, Strecher VJ, Resnicow K.
A picture may be worth a thousand words: Obese adolescents’ perspectives on a modified photovoice activity to aid weight loss.
Child Obesity 2012;8:230-6.

Gowda C, Carlos RC, Butchart AT, Singer DC, Davis MM, Clark SJ, Dempsey AF.
CHIAS: A standardized measure of parental HPV immunization attitudes and beliefs and its associations with vaccine uptake.
Sex Trans Dis 2012;39:475-81.

Woolford SJ, Sallinen B, Schaffer SE, Clark SJ.
Eat, play, love: Adolescent and parent perceptions of the components of a multidisciplinary weight management program.
Clin Pediatrics 2012;51:678-84.

Dombkowski KJ, Clark SJ.
Redefining meaningful use: Achieving interoperability with immunization registries.
Am J Prev Med 2012;42:e33-5.

Yoon EY, Cohn L, Rocchini A, Kershaw D, Clark SJ.
Clonidine utilization trends for Medicaid children.
Clin Pediatrics. Published online April 17 2012; DOI: 10.1177/0009922812441661.

Dombkowski KJ, Lamarand K, Dong S, Perng W, Clark SJ.
Using Medicaid claims to identify children with asthma.
J Public Health Mgmt Pract 2012;18:196-203.

Clark SJ, Lamarand K, Dombkowski KJ.
Identifying children with chronic conditions for influenza vaccination using a statewide immunization registry: Initial experiences of primary care providers.
J Public Health Mgmt Pract. 2012;18:204-8.

Woolford SJ, Sallinen BJ, Clark SJ, IglayReger HB, Gordon PM.
Association between physician recommendation for adolescents to join a weight loss program and BMI change.
J Prim Care Community Health. In press.

Dombkowski KJ, Harrington L, Kennedy A, Clark SJ.
Current and potential use of new technologies for reminder notifications.
Clin Pediatrics. 2012;51:394-7.

Macy ML, Clark SJ, Sasson C, Meurer WJ, Freed GL.
Emergency physician perspectives on child passenger safety: A national survey of attitudes and practices.
Acad Pediatr. 2012;12:131-7.

Dombkowski KJ, Cowan AE, Harrington LB, Allred NJ, Hudson E, Clark SJ.
Feasibility of initiating and sustaining registry-based immunization recall in private practices.
Acad Pediatr. 2012; Mar 12(2):104-9.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Wortley PM.
Perspectives of allergists/immunologists on the 2009-10 H1N1 vaccination effort.
J Asthma. 2012 Mar;49(2):184-9.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Wortley PM.
Involvement of endocrinologists in the 2009-10 H1N1 vaccination effort.
Endocrine Pract. 2012;Jan 09:11358. doi:10.4158/11358.OR.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Wortley PM.
Perspectives of pulmonologists on the 2009-10 H1N1 vaccination effort.
Pulm Med. 2012;306207. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Yoon EY, Cohn L, Rocchini A, Kershaw D, Freed GL, Ascione F, Clark SJ.
Antihypertensive prescribing patterns for adolescents with primary hypertension.
Pediatrics. 2012 Jan;129(1):e1-8.

Dombkowski, KJ, Harrington LB, Dong S, Clark SJ.
Seasonal influenza vaccination reminders for children with high-risk conditions: A registry-based randomized trial.
Am J Prev Med 2012;42:71-5.

Dombkowski KJ, Leasure S, Stevenson J, Clark SJ.
Assessing the burden of undeliverable immunization reminder and recall notifications.
Prev Med. 2011 Dec 1;53(6):424-6.

Clark SJ, Kretsinger KA, Kilmarx P.
Coverage of newborn and adult male circumcision varies among public and private US payers despite health benefits.
Health Affairs 2011;30:2355-61.

Tarini BA, Clark SJ, Pilli S, Dombkowski KJ, Korzeniewski SJ, Gebremariam A, Eisenhandler J, Grigorescu V.
False-positive newborn screening result and future health care use in a state Medicaid cohort.
Pediatrics. 2011 Oct;128(4):715-22.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Wortley PM.
Influenza vaccine-related information needs of US primary care physicians.
Prev Med. 2011 Dec 1;53(6):421-3.

Woolford SJ, Barr K, Derry H, Jepson C, Clark SJ, Strecher VJ, Resnicow K.
OMG do not say LOL: Obese adolescents' perspectives on the content of text messages to enhance weight loss efforts.
Obesity. 2011 Dec;19(12):2382-7.

Clark SJ, Butchart A, Kennedy A, Dombkowski KJ.
Parents' experiences with and preferences for immunization reminder/recall technologies.
Pediatrics. 2011 Nov;128(5):e1100-5.

Zickafoose JS, Gebremariam A, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Medical home disparities between children with public and private insurance.
Acad Pediatr. 2011;11:305-10.

Benneyworth BD, Gebremariam A, Clark SJ, Shanley TP, Davis MM.
Inpatient health care utilization for children dependent on long-term mechanical ventilation.
Pediatrics. 2011;127:e1533-41.

Davis RN, Davis MM, Freed GL, Clark SJ.
Fathers’ depression related to positive and negative parenting behaviors with one-year-old children.
Pediatrics. 2011;127:612-8.

Macy ML, Davis MM, Clark SJ, Stanley, RM.
Parental health literacy and asthma education delivery during a visit to a community-based pediatric emergency department: a pilot study.
Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011;27:469-74.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Freed GL.
Private-sector vaccine purchase costs and insurer payments: A disincentive for using combination vaccines?
Hum Vaccin. 2011;7(4):426-428.

Odetola FO, Clark SJ, Lamarand KE, Davis MM, Garton HJ.
Intracranial pressure monitoring in childhood meningitis with coma: A national survey of neurosurgeons in the United States.
Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011 Jan 21. [Epub ahead of print].

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Butchart AT, Singer DC, Davis MM.
Sources and perceived credibility of vaccine safety information for parents.
Pediatrics. 2011;127 Suppl 1:S107-12.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Coleman MS.
Primary care physician perspectives on providing adult vaccines.
Vaccine. 2011;29:1850-4.

Woolford SJ, Sallinen BJ, Clark SJ, Freed GL.
Results from a clinical multidisciplinary weight management program.
Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2011;50:187-91.

Yoon EY, Clark SJ, Butchart A, Singer D, Davis MM.
Parental preferences for FDA-approved medications prescribed for their children.
Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2011;50:208-14.

Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Strecher VJ, Resnicow K.
Tailored mobile phone text messages as an adjunct to obesity treatment for adolescents.
J Telemed Telecare. 2010;16:458-61.

Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Gebremariam A, Davis MM, Freed GL.
Physicians’ perspectives on referring obese adolescents to pediatric multidisciplinary weight management programs.
Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2010;49:871-5.

Dombkowski KJ, Hassan F, Wasilevich E, Clark SJ.
Spirometry use among pediatric primary care physicians.
Pediatrics. 2010;126:682-7.

Yoon EY, Clark SJ, Gorman R, Nelson S, O’Connor KG, Freed GL.
Differences in pediatric drug information sources used by general versus subspecialist pediatricians.
Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2010;49:743-9.

Lee JM, Woolford SJ, Herman WH, Clark SJ.
Does childhood overweight, parental perception of overweight, or family history of diabetes increase parental perception of type 2 diabetes risk for their child?
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metabol 2010;23:267-70.

Tarini BA, Singer DD, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Not without my permission: Parents’ willingness to permit use of newborn screening samples for research.
Pub Health Genomics 2010;13:125-30.

Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Gebremariam A, Davis MM, Freed GL.
To cut or not to cut: Physicians’ perspectives on referring adolescents for bariatric surgery.
Obes Surg 2010 Jul;20(7):937-42.

Freed GL, Dunham KM, Clark SJ, Davis MM, the Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of Pediatrics.
Perspectives and preferences regarding physician selection and board certification among the general public.
J Pediatr 2010;156;841-5.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Butchart AT, Singer DC, Davis MM.
Parental vaccine safety concerns in 2009.
Pediatrics 2010;125:654-659.

Davis RN, Caldwell C, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Depressive symptoms in non-resident African-American fathers and involvement with their sons.
Pediatrics 2009;124:1611-8.

Dombkowski KJ, Harrison SR, Cohn LM, Lewis TC, Clark SJ.
Continuity of prescribers of short-acting beta agonists among children with asthma.
J Pediatr 2009;155:788-94.

Dempsey AF, Singer DC, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Adolescent preventive healthcare: What do parents want?
J Pediatr 2009;155:689-94.

Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Feasibility and acceptability of a one-page tool to help physicians assess and discuss obesity with parents of preschoolers.
Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2009;48:954-9.

Dempsey AF, Singer DD, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Parents’ views on three shot-related visits: Implications for use of adolescent vaccines like human papillomavirus vaccine.
Acad Peds 2009;9;348-52.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Wortley PM.
Worksite policies related to influenza vaccination: a cross-sectional survey of US registered nurses.
Hum Vaccine 2009;5:545-50.

Tarini BA, Singer DD, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Parents’ interest in predictive genetic testing for their children when a disease has no effective treatment.
Pediatrics 2009;124:e432–e438.

Yoon EY, Davis MM, Kershaw D, Clark SJ.
Formulary coverage for antihypertensive drugs used in children.
Am J Pharm Benefits 2009;1:145-9.

Dempsey AF, Cowan AE, Broder KR, Kretsinger K, Stokley S, Clark SJ.
Diagnosis and testing practices for adolescent pertussis among a national sample of primary care physicians.
Prev Med 2009;48:500-4.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Wortley PM.
Influenza vaccination attitudes and practices among US registered nurses.
Am J Infect Control 2009;37:551-6.

Yoon EY, Freed GL, Davis MM, Clark SJ.
Formulary coverage for lipid-lowering drugs recommended for children.
Clin Pediatrics 2009;48:609-13.

Odetola FO, Clark SJ, Gurney JG, Dechert R, Shanley T, Freed GL.
Effect of interhospital transfer on resource utilization and outcomes at a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit.
J Crit Care 2009;24:379-86.

Dempsey AF, Cowan AE, Broder KR, Kretsinger K, Stokley S, Clark SJ.
Adolescent Tdap vaccine utilization among primary care physicians.
J Adolesc Health 2009;44:387-93.

Dalton V, Harris L, Clark SJ, Cohn L, Guire K, Fendrick AM.
Treatment patterns for early pregnancy failure in Michigan.
J Womens Health 2009;18:787-93.

Odetola FO, Davis MM, Cohn LM, Clark SJ.
Interhospital transfer of critically ill and injured children: an evaluation of transfer patterns, resource utilization, and clinical outcomes.
J Hosp Med 2009;4:164-70.

Woolford SJ, Gebremariam A, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Persistent gap of incremental charges for obesity as a secondary diagnosis in common pediatric hospitalizations.
J Hosp Med 2009;4:149-56.

Odetola FO, Rosenberg AL, Davis MM, Clark SJ, Dechert RE, Shanley TP.
Do outcomes vary according to the source of admission to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit?
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2008;9:20-5.

Freed GL, Cowan AE, Gregory S, Clark SJ.
Primary care physician perspectives on reimbursement for childhood immunizations.
Pediatrics 2008;122:1319-24.

Freed GL, Cowan AE, Clark SJ.
Variation in provider vaccine purchase prices and payer reimbursement.
Pediatrics 2008;122:1325-31.

Davis MM, Wortley PM, Ndiaye SM, Cowan AE, Osta AD, Clark SJ.
Influenza vaccine for high-risk non-elderly adults: a national survey of subspecialists.
Hum Vaccine 2008;4:56-60.

Dombkowski KJ, Leung SW, Clark SJ.
Physician perspectives regarding annual influenza vaccination among children with asthma.
Amb Pediatrics 2008;8:294-9.

Tarini BA, Singer DD, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Public perceptions of genetic risk: a comparison of family history and genetic test results.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2008;162:1079-83.

Woolford SJ, Lumeng JM, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Physicians’ perspectives on increasing the use of BMI charts for young children.
Clin Pediatrics 2008;47:573-7.

Dempsey AF, Cowan AE, Stokley S, Messonier M, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
The role of economic information in decision-making by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.
Vaccine 2008;26:5389-92.

Lee JM, Davis MM, Clark SJ, Kemper AR.
Threshold of evaluation for short stature in a pediatric endocrine clinic: differences between boys versus girls?
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2007;21:21-6.

Kemper AR, Clark SJ.
Preschool vision screening by family physicians.
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2007;44:24-7.

Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Lumeng JC, Williams DR, Davis MM.
Maternal perspectives on growth and nutrition counseling provided at preschool well-child visits.
J Natl Med Assoc 2007;99:153-8.

Davis MM, Cowan AE, Marin M, Guris D, Clark SJ.
Physician attitudes regarding breakthrough varicella disease and a potential second dose of varicella vaccine.
Pediatrics 2007;119:258-64.

Woolford SJ, Gebremariam A, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Incremental hospital charges associated with obesity as a secondary diagnosis in children.
Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:1895-901.

Odetola FO, Clark SJ, Dechert RE, Shanley TP.
Going back for more: An evaluation of clinical outcomes associated with readmissions to the pediatric intensive care unit.
Pediatr Crit Care Med 2007;8:343-7.

Davis MM, Kretsinger K, Cowan AE, Stokley S Clark SJ.
New combined tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines for adults: primary care physician attitudes and preferences.
Hum Vaccine 2007;3:130-4.

Hanrahan K, Gates M, Attar M, Lang SW, Frohna A, Clark SJ.
Neonatal back transport: perspectives from parents of Medicaid-insured infants and providers.
Neonatal Networks 2007;5:301-9.

Dombkowski KJ, Leung SW, Clark SJ.
Provider attitudes regarding use of an immunization information system to identify children with asthma for influenza vaccination.
J Public Health Mgmt Pract 2007;13:567-71.

Stanley RM, Zimmerman JL, Hashikawa C, Clark SJ.
Appropriateness of children’s non-urgent visits to selected Michigan emergency departments.
Ped Emerg Care 2007;23:532-6.

Odetola FO, Clark SJ, Davis MM.
Growth, development, and failure to thrive: factors that underlie the availability of pediatric critical care facilities in the United States.
Pediatr Critical Care Med 2006;7:70-3.

Moseley KL, Clark SJ, Gebremariam A, Sternthal MJ, Kemper AR.
Parents' trust in their child's physician: using an adapted Trust in Physician Scale.
Amb Pediatr 2006;6:58-61.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Bartlett DL.
Private provider participation in statewide immunization registries.
BMC Public Health 2006;6:33.

Cowan AE, Winston CA, Davis MM, Wortley PM, Clark SJ.
Influenza vaccination status and influenza-related perspectives and practices among US physicians.
Am J Infect Control 2006;34:164-9.

Kemper AR, Uren R, Clark SJ.
Adoption of electronic health records in primary care pediatric practices.
Pediatrics 2006;118:e20-24.

Davis MM, Broder K, Cowan AE, Mijalski C, Kretsinger K, Stokley S, Clark SJ.
Physician attitudes and preferences about combined Tdap vaccines for adolescents.
Am J Prev Med 2006;31:176-80.

Freed GL, Cowan AE, Clark SJ, Santoli JM, Bradley J.
Use of a new combined vaccine in private practices.
Pediatrics 2006;118:e251-7.

Kemper AR, Clark SJ.
Preschool vision screening in pediatric practices.
Clin Pediatr 2006;45:263-6.

Richmond, T, Freed GL, Clark SJ, Cabana MD.
Guidelines for adolescent well-care: Is there consensus?
Curr Opin Pediatr 2006;18:365-70.

Dombkowski KJ, Davis MM, Cohn LM, Clark SJ.
Effect of missed opportunities on influenza vaccination rates among children with asthma.
Arch Ped Adolesc Med 2006;160:966-71.

Lee JM, Davis MM, Clark SJ, Hofer TP, Kemper AR.
Estimated cost-effectiveness of growth hormone therapy for idiopathic short stature.
Arch Ped Adolesc Med 2006;160:263-9.

Kemper AR, Uren RL, Clark SJ.
Barriers to follow-up eye care after preschool vision screening in the primary care setting: findings from a pilot study.
J AAPOS: Am Assoc Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2006; 10:476-8.

Odetola FO, Shanley TP, Gurney JG, Clark SJ, Dechert RE, Freed GL, Davis MM.
Characteristics and outcomes of interhospital transfers from level II to level I pediatric intensive care units.
Ped Crit Care Med 2006;7:536-40.

Clark SJ, Adolphe S, Davis MM, Cowan AE, Kretsinger K.
Attitudes of US obstetricians toward a combined tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine for adults.
Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol 2006;87040:1-5.

Kemper AR, Uren RL, Moseley KL, Clark SJ.
Primary care physicians’ attitudes regarding follow-up care for children with a positive newborn screen.
Pediatrics 2006;118:1836-41.

Clark SJ, Cowan AE, Stokley S, Bilukha O, Davis MM.
Physician perspectives to inform a new recommendation for meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4).
J Adolesc Health 2006;39:850-5.

Odetola FO, Clark SJ, Freed GL, Bratton SL, Davis MM.
A national survey of pediatric critical care resources in the United States.
Pediatrics 2005;115:e382-e386.

Cowan AE, Ching P, Clark SJ, Kemper AR.
Willingness of private physicians to be involved in smallpox preparedness and response activities.
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2005:3:16-22.

Kemper AR, Cowan AE, Ching P, Davis MM, Kennedy EJ, Clark SJ, Freed GL.
Hospital decision-making regarding the Smallpox Pre-Event Vaccination Program.
Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2005;3:23-30.

Fant KE, Clark SJ, Kemper AR.
Completeness and complexity of information available to parents from newborn screening programs.
Pediatrics 2005;115:1268-72.

Mabry IR, Clark SJ, Kemper AR, Fraser K, Kileny S, Cabana MD.
Variation in establishing a diagnosis of obesity in children.
Clin Pediatr 2005;44:221-7.

Davis MM, Halasyamani LK, Sneller VP, Bishop KR, Clark SJ.
Provider response to different formats of the adult immunization schedule.
Am J Prev Med 2005;29:34-40.

Cabana MD, Dombkowski KJ, Yoon EY, Clark SJ.
Variation in pediatric asthma quality improvement programs by managed care plans.
Am J Med Qual 2005;20:204-9.

Kemper AR, Clark SJ.
Physician barriers to lead testing of Medicaid-enrolled children.
Amb Pediatr 2005;5:290-3.

Kemper AR, Fant KE, Clark SJ.
Informing parents about newborn screening.
Pub Health Nurs 2005;22:332-38.

Dombkowski KJ, Cabana MD, Cohn LM, Gebremariam A, Clark SJ.
Geographic variation of asthma quality measures within and between health plans.
Am J Managed Care 2005;11:765-72.

Kemper AR, Diaz G, Clark SJ.
Willingness of eye care practices to evaluate children and accept Medicaid.
Amb Pediatr 2004:4:303-7.

Rushton JL, Fant, KE, Clark SJ.
Use of practice guidelines in the primary care of children with ADHD.
Pediatrics 2004;114:23-8.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Hibbs BF, Santoli J.
Parental vaccine safety concerns: the experiences of pediatricians and family physicians.
Am J Prev Med 2004;26:11-4.

Davis MM, Wortley P, Ndiaye SM, Woods MG, Clark SJ.
Differences in availability of influenza vaccine among medical subspecialty practices: a national survey.
Am J Prev Med 2004;26:307-10.

Kemper AR, Fant KE, Bruckman D, Clark SJ.
Evaluation of a hearing and vision screening program for school-aged children.
Am J Prev Med 2004;26:141-6.

Dombkowski KJ, Stanley RM, Clark SJ.
The influence of Medicaid managed care enrollment on emergency department utilization by children.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158:17-21.

Freed GL, Jee S, Stein L, Spera L, Clark SJ.
Comparing the self-reported referral and management preferences of pediatricians and family physicians for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
J Rheumatol 2003;30:2700-4.

Eklund SA, Pittman JL, Clark SJ.
Michigan Medicaid’s Healthy Kids Dental program: an assessment of the first 12 months.
J Am Dental Assoc 2003;134:1509-15.

Davis MM, Ndiaye SM, Freed GL, Clark SJ.
One-year uptake of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a national survey of family physicians and pediatricians.
J Am Board Fam Pract 2003;16:363-71.

Kemper AR, Clark SJ, Freed GL.
Services provided for preschool-aged children with suspected amblyopia.
J Pediatr Ophthal & Strabismus 2003;40:279-82.

Davis MM, Ndiaye SM, Freed GL, Kim CS, Clark SJ.
The influence of insurance status and vaccine cost on physicians’ administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
Pediatrics 2003;112:521-6.

Freed GL, Davis MM, Clark SJ.
Variation in public and private supply of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine during a shortage.
JAMA 2003;289:575-8.

Cabana MD, Aiken KD, Davis MM, Freed GL, Clark SJ.
Combined effect of changes in guideline recommendations and immunization financing policy on nursery immunizations.
Amb Pediatrics 2002;2:367-74.

Davis MM, McMahon S, Santoli JM, Schwartz B, Clark SJ.
Physicians' responses to influenza vaccine delays, 2000-01.
J Gen Int Med 2001;16(Suppl 1):192.

Clark SJ, Cabana MD, Malik T, Yusuf H, Freed GL.
Hepatitis B vaccination practices in hospital newborn nurseries before and after changes in vaccination recommendations.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001;155:915-20.

Clark SJ, Savitz LA, Randolph RK.
Rural children’s health.
Western J Med 2001;174:142-7.

Rushton JL, Clark SJ, Freed GL.
Pediatrician and family physician prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Pediatrics 2000;105:E82.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Cowan AE.
State-level perspectives on immunization policies, practices, and program financing in the 1990s.
Am J Prev Med 2000;19(3S):32-44.

Rushton JL, Clark SJ, Freed GL.
Primary care role in the management of childhood depression: a comparison of pediatricians and family physicians.
Pediatrics 2000;105:957-62.

Freed GL, Pathman DE, Konrad TR, Freeman VA, Clark SJ.
Adopting immunization recommendations: a new dissemination model.
Mat Child Health J 1999;2:231-9.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Pathman DE, Schectman R, Serling J.
Impact of North Carolina’s universal vaccine purchase program by children’s insurance status.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999;153:748-54.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Pathman DE, Schectman R.
Influences on the receipt of well-child visits in the first two years of life.
Pediatrics 1999;103(4 Suppl):864-9.

Mayer ML, Clark SJ, Konrad TR, Freeman VA, Slifkin RT.
The role of state policies and programs in buffering the effects of poverty on children’s immunization receipt.
Am J Public Health 1999;89:164-70.

Clark SJ, Freed GL.
Use of public immunization services after initiation of a universal vaccine purchase program.
Arch Ped Adolesc Med 1998;157:642-5.

Slifkin RT, Clark SJ, Strandhoy SE, Konrad TR.
Public-sector immunization coverage in eleven states: The status of rural areas.
J Rural Health 1997;13:334-41.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Pathman DE, Konrad TR, Biddle AK, Schectman RM.
Impact of a new universal purchase vaccine program in North Carolina.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1997;151:1117-24.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Konrad TR, Pathman DE.
Factors affecting physicians’ early adoption of combined DTP-Hib vaccine.
Amb Child Health 1997;3:27-33.

Freed GL, Freeman VA, Konrad TR, Pathman DE, Clark SJ.
Sources of immunization information for physicians.
Amb Child Health 1997;2:329-37.

Freed GL, Clark SJ.
Advising breastfeeding mothers when they become ill.
Contemp OB/GYN 1996;41:43-54.

Freed GL, Clark SJ.
Breastfeeding and maternal illness.
Contemp Ped 1996;13:49-61.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Konrad TR, Pathman DE.
Variation in patient charges for vaccines and well-child care.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1996;150:421-6.

Freed GL, Freeman VA, Clark SJ, Konrad TR, Pathman DE.
Pediatrician and family physician agreement with and adoption of universal hepatitis B immunization.
J Fam Pract 1996;42:587-92.

Freed GL, Clark SJ.
Educating ourselves about breastfeeding. Focus & Opinion:
Pediatrics  1996;2:196-206.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Harris BG, Lowdermilk DL.
Methods and outcomes of breastfeeding instruction for nursing students.
J Hum Lact 1996;12:105-10.

Freed GL, Katz SL, Clark SJ.
Safety of vaccinations: Miss America, the media, and public health.
JAMA 1996;276:1869-72.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Lohr JA, Sorenson J.
Pediatrician involvement in breast-feeding promotion:  a national study of residents and practitioners.
Pediatrics 1995;96:490-4

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Cefalo RC, Sorenson J.
Breast-feeding education of obstetrics-gynecology residents and practitioners.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:1607-13.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Curtis P, Sorenson J. 
Breast-feeding education and practice in family medicine.
J Fam Pract 1995;40:263-9.

Freed GL, Clark SJ, Sorenson J, Lohr JA, Cefalo RC, Curtis P.
National assessment of physicians’ breast-feeding knowledge, attitudes, training, and experience.
JAMA 1995;273:742-6.

Freed GL, Bordley WC, Clark SJ, Konrad TR.
Universal hepatitis B immunization of infants:  reactions of pediatricians and family physicians over time.
Pediatrics 1994;93:747-51.

Freed GL, Bordley WC, Clark SJ, Konrad TR.
Reactions of pediatricians to a new Centers for Disease Control recommendation for universal immunization of infants with hepatitis B vaccine.Pediatrics 1993;91(4):699-702.

Freed GL, Bordley WC, Clark SJ, Konrad TR.
Family physician acceptance of universal hepatitis B immunization of infants.
J Fam Pract 1993;36(2):153-7.